- Modifier before noun.
- Present paticiple.
Ex.Seeing a dog, I ran away.
- past participle.
Ex. The stolen dog has been found.
- Noun adjunct.
In English we can put two nouns together. The first noun is used as an adjective to modify the second noun and is called a noun adjunct. The first noun is almost always singular because it follows the rule for adjectives, which do not have plural forms in English.
N1 N2 can mean that
a. N1 is a kind of N2 (a grammar book is a kind of book)
b. N1 is an object of an implied verb (an apple tree is a tree that produces apples)
It is important to understand that N2 is the thing and N1 is the kind or type:
a rose bush is a bush
a wrist watch is a watch
computer paper is paper
N1 is singular, even if the phrase is plural.
My mother planted a rose bush in the garden.
I bought a new table lamp.
Bobby takes the school bus to school.
The school ordered fifty new grammar books.
That man makes bird cages.
Mrs. Taylor bought some new baby clothes.
We can use a number with N1 to make a compound adjective. Since the number and noun make one unit, we use a hyphen to join them. Note that N1 remains singular because it is being used as an adjective.
a three-car garage
a ten-speed bicycle
a twenty-dollar bill
If we use a number to refer to the second noun (how many), we do not use a hyphen:
two grammar books
five rose bushes
We can use a number to refer to the second noun (how many) and a number with the first noun (compound adjective). In that case, there is no hyphen after the first number, but the second number is still used with a hyphen because it forms a compound adjective.
two ten-dollar bills
four three-bedroom homes
2. Modifier after noun.
The concert tomorrow.
The room upstairs.
- To infinitive.
2. The to- infinitive shows how the noun or pronoun is to be used.
Ex.I have work to do.
Do you need a book to read?
She gave him something to drink.
They don’t want anything to eat
- Present participle.
I saw a rock rolling down the hill.
Dear Abby: 'Nice guy' wants some control over his explosions of anger
By Dear Abby
DEAR ABBY: I have an issue that has me concerned, and I need some expertise.
I have a problem with anger. I don't know what triggers it. It happens out of the blue sometimes.
I have never struck out in anger toward another person, but people have witnessed my outbursts and seemed taken aback by the behavior. The instances occur every month or two.
I'm a nice guy. I would bend over backward to help someone if I could.
My verbal explosions contradict who I am inside. Do you have any suggestions on what I can do to control my temper in these situations?
- Hothead in New Jersey
DEAR HOTHEAD: Anger is a normal emotion. Everyone has experienced it at one time or another. When primitive men and women were faced with a potential threat, they reacted instinctively with either fear or anger. It was nature's way of enabling us to run away or fight back.
Even infants display anger by screaming or holding their breath until they turn red. And we've all seen older children throw tantrums, holler and throw things.
Whatever is causing your angry outbursts, it is important to analyze what has been triggering them.
Being out of work, unable to pay one's bills or feeling unfairly treated can arouse feelings of anger.
Being hurt emotionally by someone can cause it, too. People have been known to become angry if their beliefs or values are questioned or threatened.
Low self-esteem can also cause people to feel easily threatened. Many people who suffer from chronic low self-esteem believe they must continually prove themselves. To compensate for their feelings of inadequacy, they are driven to "win every battle," whether at sports or in an argument.
People who are overly tired have been known to lash out without real provocation.
Being physically ill can have the same effect. (You can break that cycle by simply explaining that you're not feeling well and ask for patience because your temper is short at such times.)
Depression, drugs and alcohol abuse have long been known to cause people to lose control of their emotions and say - and do - things they later regret.
I publish a booklet, "The Anger in All of Us and How to Deal With It," that was created to help people learn to control their anger.
For people of all ages, it is a kind of survival guide to help them understand their anger and appropriately deal with it.
It can be ordered by sending your name and mailing address, plus a check or money order for $6 (U.S. funds), to Dear Abby - Anger Booklet, Box 447, Mount Morris, IL 61054-0447. Shipping and handling included in price.
Most of us have been trained from early childhood to suppress anger. But it is even more important to learn to express it in ways that are constructive rather than destructive.
Anger can be a positive emotion if it is channeled in the right direction. Uncontrolled, it can be a killer.
Dear Abby:I'm interesting English language,because it is fun and challenge. Now,I can not speak English very well.Please tell me the strategies for to learn English better.